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Drainage System – Indus Valley Civilization
Many of these cities had covered drains.
- The drains were covered with slabs or bricks.
- The towns had a grid pattern and drainages were systematically built.
- The drainages were built with burnt bricks.
Each drain had a gentle slope so that water could flow.
- Holes were provided at regular intervals to clean the drains
House drains passed below many lanes before finally emptying into the main drains.
Every house has its own soak pit.
- which collected all the sediments and allowed only the water to flow into the street drain.
The great bath was a large, rectangular tank in a courtyard.
- It is set in the center of the city
- It may be the earliest example of a water-proof structure.
The corridors were present on all four sides and tairs are seen on the northern and southern sides.
- The bath was lined with bricks, coated with plaster and made water-tight using layers of natural bitumen.
- The floor of the pool was coated with bitumen to prevent water absorption.
It was well paved with several adjacent rooms. Some structures are identified as granary.
The bricks were laid watertight with gypsum mortar.
It had drainage. It is associated with a ritual bath.
There were steps on the north and south leading into the tank.
- There were rooms on three sides.
Water was drawn from the well located in the courtyard
The used water are drained out.
The Great Granary – Indus Valley Civilization
The granary was a massive building with a solid brick foundation
It is 168 feet long & 135 feet wide.
- Its walls are 52 feet high and 9 feet thick.
- These were built in two rows
- The distance between these two rows is 23 feet.
- There were six halls in each walls.
- Each hall has three great walls.
- Each contain four rooms.
- The ground floor of these halls are made of woods.
Granaries were used to store food grain.
The remains of wheat, barley, millets, sesame and pulses have been found there.
The Assembly Hall
The Assembly Hall was another huge public building at Mohenjo Daro.
It was a multi-pillared hall (20 pillars in 4 rows to support the roof).
Harappan civilization is said to be urban because of the following reasons.
- Well-conceived town planning
- Astonishing masonry and architecture
- Priority for hygiene and public health
- Standardised weights and measures
- Solid agricultural and artisanal base
Subsistence and Economic Production
Agriculture was an important source of subsistence for the Harappans.
The Harappans cultivated diverse crops such as wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, sesame and various millets.
They adopted a double cropping system.
The Harappans used ploughs.
They used both canal and well irrigation.
Pastoralism was also practised by the Harappans.
- They domesticated sheep, goat and fowl.
They had knowledge of various other animals including buffalo, pig and elephant.
- But horse was not known to them.
The Harappan cattle are called Zebu. It is a large breed, often represented in their seals.
They also ate fish and birds.
Evidence of boar, deer and gharial has been found at the Harappan sites.
Bead and ornament making, shell bangle making and metalworking were the major crafts.
Recent Study – Indus Valley Civilization
- In October 2020. The studies were carried out on 59 shards of pottery from Kotada Bhadli, a small archaeological site in present day Gujarat
- The team used molecular analysis techniques to study the residues from ancient pottery
- The researchers studies the tooth enamel from fossils of cattle, water buffalo, goat and sheep found in the area
- A new study has shown that dairy products were
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